You can print a document directly from the Finder without having to manually open its parent application. This may seem obvious, but enough folks seemed to not know about it when I asked around.
You simply need to select a document in the Finder and hit ⌘-P, or just select Print from the Finder’s File menu.
The document’s native app will open it and send it to the printer, then promptly close. Third-party apps may require you to manually approve printer settings, but Apple’s own apps (like Preview) will send the job right along its way!
Editor’s note: This seems like one of those clever-but-unsung features that’s been around for a while, perhaps even from the pre-OS X era. Anyone know when exactly it showed up?